Fsl randomise options trading
June 24, ; Accepted date: July 21, ; Published fsl randomise options trading Remes Fsl randomise options trading, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at Molecular Biology: Functional MRI studies have revealed connectivity changes in several brain networks in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and imaging genomics is an emerging field to investigate the role of genetics in brain function.
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in open reading frame in chromosome 9 C9ORF72 is a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia. Seven patients and matched healthy controls were examined. Increased anti-correlation between bilateral thalamic fsl randomise options trading of the salience network and anterior sub-network of the Default mode network DMN was found in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion. In addition, increased resting state connectivity was detected in the right-sided dorsal attention network.
The changes in these cognitive networks may explain executive dysfunction as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with bvFTD. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration FTLD is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by behavioral and language deficits. The most common clinical presentation is behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia bvFTDwhich is characterized by profound changes in behavior and personality and decline in executive functions [ 12 ].
It provides an indirect marker of neuronal function on a timescale of seconds with high spatial resolution [ 6 ]. The salience network is a large-scale network that bridges the frontal lobes and limbic system and is related to socially-emotionally relevant information processing [ 9 ].
Since these two networks account for the most essential cognitive symptoms and also the sites of neuropathology of bvFTD and AD, they have Received date: Reduced DMN connectivity in patients with AD has been a quite consistent finding across studies [ 1213 ]. There are only few studies available of bvFTD and the results have been less consistent. However, decreased functional connectivity in the salience network has been the most frequent finding in bvFTD. In some studies increased connectivity in the DMN has been observed, but there has been a lot of variation concerning the DMN related findings in bvFTD [ 1214 - 18 ].
Clinical diagnosis of bvFTD is often challenging because there is considerable heterogeneity in symptology, but genetic testing has provided great advances in the diagnostics.
Imaging genomics is an emerging field investigating the role of genes in brain function [ 19 ]. There are only a few reports available of resting state brain networks using rfMRI in genetically determined FTLD patients or asymptomatic mutation carriers [ 151620 ]. These studies have shown that functional changes are present in the brain already before atrophy can be detected on structural MRI and even before symptom onset [ 151620 ].
Given the location of the salience network in the areas of bvFTD related neurodegeneration and its involvement in behavioral and emotional functions, we hypothesized to find functional connectivity decrease in this network in this genetically uniform bvFTD patient group.
Fsl randomise options trading with logopenic aphasia and semantic dementia were excluded from the cohort. Mean age of the patients was 58 years years Table 1. MMSE score was mean Neuropsychological evaluation and modified frontal behavioural inventory FBI-mod were fsl randomise options trading on all patients. The most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptoms in FBI-mod were irritability, loss of insight, disorganization and apathy.
In neuropsychological evaluation executive dysfunction was present in all patients. Profound deficits in delayed recall were not detected in any of the patients. Severity of bvFTD was rated mild in three patients, moderate in three patients and severe in one patient [ 21 ]. None of the patients had symptoms or signs suggesting amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Psychiatric and neurological fsl randomise options trading and medications affecting the fsl randomise options trading nervous system were excluded.
Written informed consent was obtained from all the patients fsl randomise options trading their guardians and control cases.
All test data except IQ scores is represented as raw scores. Mean and standard deviation for middle-aged healthy controls are shown. Subjects were imaged with conventional gradient recalled echo GRE EPI sequence TR ms, TE 40 ms, time points, 28 oblique axial slices, slice thickness 4 mm, inter-slice space 0.
The first three images were excluded from the time series due to T1 relaxation effects. The subjects were asked to relax and lie still without thinking anything special, and look at a cross through the scanner mirror on a screen provided by custom-made video projector apparatus.
Motion was minimized using soft pads fitted over the ears and hearing was protected with ear plugs and pads. Head motion in the fMRI data was corrected using multi-resolution rigid body co-registration of volumes, as implemented in motion correction with fast linear registration tool MCFLIRT [ 22 ].
The default settings used were: This procedure was verified with visual inspection of the extraction result. When the BET failed to fsl randomise options trading remove some tissue, the extracranial tissues often in neck areas were removed manually by fsl randomise options trading the tissue with FSL and then re-entering the data into the processing pipeline.
After successful brain extraction the BOLD volumes were spatially smoothed; 5 mm full width with half maximum FWHM Gaussian kernel and voxel time series were detrended using a Gaussian linear high-pass fsl randomise options trading with a second cutoff. Fslmaths tool was used for these steps. The resulting transformations and the tri-linear interpolation were used to spatially standardize smoothed and filtered BOLD volumes to the 4 mm MNI standard space.
Anatomical data was dimension swapped and manually checked for brain extractions and further analysed for voxel based morphometry VBM with FSL steps for group differences.
Also a voxel-wise gray matter regressor was produced with FSL 4. Spatial ICA using a conventional 30 independent components ICs fsl randomise options trading applied to detect resting state networks as described fsl randomise options trading [ 25 - 27 ].
The between-subject analysis of the resting data was carried out using a regression technique dual regression that allows for voxel-wise comparisons of RSNs [ 2628 ]. Dual regression approach identifies subject-specific temporal dynamics and associated spatial maps within each subject's fMRI data set. This involves A using the group-ICA spatial maps in a linear model fit against the separate fMRI data sets, resulting in matrices time-course matrices describing temporal dynamics for each component and subject, and B using these time-course matrices to fsl randomise options trading subject-specific spatial maps.
The dual regression was performed in two ways; with and without variance normalization in order to see whether the differences between the groups were more related to spatial no variance normalization or amplitude of the signal variance normalized [ 30 ].
Individual gray matter segmentation map was used at the voxel level in order to regress out the gray matter lose effects with --vx f -option in dual regression randomize run. We also adjusted for the more stringent risk of type 1 error false positives induced by selecting multiple RSNs. The Juelich histological atlas and the Harvard—Oxford cortical and subcortical atlases Harvard Center for Morphometric Analysis provided with the FSL4 software were used to quantify the anatomical characteristics of the resulting difference maps.
When analyzing without variance normalization, there was also abnormal anatomical spread of the anti-correlation in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion compared to controls Figure 1B. The anatomically weighted a. These changes in the thalamic regions fsl randomise options trading focused on right hemisphere fsl randomise options trading areas with fsl randomise options trading pre-frontal white matter connectivity, based on the FSL thalamic projection probability map.
Another cluster of changes in both resting state connectivity and anatomical spread of RSN was noticed in left precuneus in superior parietal lobule Table 2.
Decrease of anatomical spread without change in functional connectivity was detected in left temporo-occipital fusiform gyrus and in parahippocampal gyrus. Functional brain regions showing altered functional connectivity in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion compared to healthy controls. In variance normalized dual regression analysis the DMN showed increased anti-correlation between bilateral dorso-medial thalamic nuclei and fsl randomise options trading DMN anterior sub-network.
Salience network and right-sided DAN showed increased resting state activity. A Resting state networks showing altered resting state connectivity in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion associated bvFTD in variance normalized dual regression analysis. ICA maps of the resting state networks are shown in red-yellow colors with z-score thresholding shown by color bar in right.
Increased anti-correlation between the DMN anterior sub-network and bilateral dorso-medial thalamic nuclei parts of the salience network is shown in purple. Increased functional connectivity in the patient group is shown in green color. The color encoding and analysis is otherwise the same as in Figure 1A except for the lack of variance normalization in dual regression analysis, which makes the analysis more sensitive to anatomical rather than BOLD amplitude differences.
C A close-up combining the results with yellow and without blue variance normalization. Increased functional resting state connectivity was detected in the right-sided DAN in right inferior frontal gyrus in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion compared to controls Figure 1A.
The anatomical and connectivity related changes were in distinct anatomical structures Figure 1A, 1B and Table 2. There were no changes in the salience network without variance normalization. However, with variance normalized analysis mild increase in spontaneous brain connectivity in left visual cortex V4 was detected Figure 1A.
A RSN focused on middle temporal gyrus bilaterally showed abnormal anatomical spread but no connectivity related changes of the RSN in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion, in left superior frontal gyrus in pre-motor areas Figure 1B and Table 2. Y-concatenation correction for multiple ICA components was also performed, but no statistically significant changes were detected using this more stringent correction.
Voxel based morphometry of gray matter: In the frontal areas the atrophy was the most dominant in frontobasal regions and frontal pole. Fsl randomise options trading was also detected in right parahippocampal areas. In fsl randomise options trading left dominant hemisphere atrophy was detected in auditory areas, pre-motor, and sensorimotor cortices.
Mild gray matter atrophy was found also in the left supramarginal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Abnormal anatomical spread of the anti-correlation in fsl randomise options trading thalamic areas with the DMN anterior sub-network was also detected. The anatomical and signal amplitude changes were detected in neighboring anatomical structures. The other studies of genetically determined bvFTD have been conducted on presymptomatic patients and the results are contradictory [ 1620 ].
The DMN and the salience network are considered to be anti-correlated in a healthy brain [ 3233 ]. In the present study the patients with the C9ORF72 expansion had increased anti-correlation between bilateral dorso-medial thalamic nuclei and the DMN.
The dorso-medial thalamic nuclei have been suggested to represent a key node binding the salience network circuitry together [ 9 ]. These nuclei play a role in numerous behavioral functions including motivation and drive, memory, emotional experience and expression, executive functions and attention [ 34 ].
A gray matter atrophy of the medial thalamus has been previously detected in patients with the Fsl randomise options trading expansion [ 3536 ]. We used gray matter volumes as regressors to minimize the effects of atrophy on the functional connectivity analysis and hence the present finding of increased anti-correlation is not due to atrophy. Decreased connectivity in the anterior thalamus and elevated prefrontal cortex fsl randomise options trading have been shown to associate with greater levels of apathy in FTLD patients [ 18 ].
Apathy was also a prominent neuropsychiatric symptom in our patients. Thus functional and structural changes in thalamus may fsl randomise options trading executive dysfunction and also neuropsychiatric profile of patients. There are only few reports available about other brain networks than the DMN and the salience network in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
When analyzing the whole brain cortex resting state networks, we found increased connectivity in the right-sided DAN in patients with the C9ORF72 expansion. The DAN appears to be responsible for voluntary top-down attention orienting as well as the preparation and selection for stimuli and responses [ 3738 ].
In FSLs, contestants assume the role of a general manager of an imaginary professional sports team and select players of interest from a roster to form their virtual team. FSLs can cover a wide range of different sports, ranging from major sports like basketball, baseball, soccer, golf, football, cricket and hockey, through to car racing, horse racing, or even darts or bowling.
The contest may be based on the ability of contestants to fsl randomise options trading the virtual team that gain points based upon the outcomes and sta,: The rules governing the calculation of contestant standings can range from very simple to complex, depending on the FSL. Typically, the contestant having picked the best virtual team fsl randomise options trading be awarded a prize.
Prizes can range from large items awarded only at the end of the season, to specific event-based prizes, to weekly or monthly prizes, to the largest points gain in a given timeframe, and many other variations.
Moreover, some FSLs will also provide other prizes to motivate contestants to participate. The fsl randomise options trading organization of FSLs can vary widely, and include purely static games fsl randomise options trading fully dynamic games.
Fsl randomise options trading a static game, such as a newspaper- or magazine-based system, the contestants will make their selections at the beginning of a season or event, and simply watch thc;ir status relative to other players.
Contestant-supported FSLs charge each contestant registration and transaction fees. Marketing-driven FSLs do not charge any fees to the contestants, but rather generate revenue from fsl randomise options trading, awareness, or increased usage of a secondary revenue-generating product, such as a television channel or a publication like a newspaper.
However, these different types of FSLs often overlap. To date, the major interfaces to FSLs have been through printed publications such as newspapers or magazines, and through the Internet. In FSLs using an interface based on a printed publication, contestants must register by filling out a form contained in the publication.
For example, if the publication is a newspaper, a physical page of the newspaper will allow users to register their virtual team selections by filling in blanks, and then mailing the completed form to the FSL provider.
The newspaper will then publish, on a regular basis, the top ranking contestants in the FSL, as well as, in certain instances, statistics on the players of interest and teams.
In FSLs using an Internet-based interface, contestants can directly access web forms and provide the same information as that provided in publication-based FSLs, as described above. The use of an Internet-based interface allows for the more timely delivery of various statistics, fsl randomise options trading well as greatly simplifies the modification of virtual team member selections by contestants.
Many of the FSLs that have more interactive interfaces are now promoted through affiliated television or radio program: However, Internet-based interfaces as well as interfaces based on a printed publication have many challenges.
Interfaces based on a printed publication are expensive to maintain because fsl randomise options trading data entry and publication fees. Also, in such types of interfaces, a contestant must have constant access to the printed publication to participate in the FSL, since, in most cases, the printed publication will be the only source of information regarding statistics and standings.
Internet-based interfaces are much richer, but require easy access to the Internet. While access to the Fsl randomise options trading is widely available in parts of Europe and North America, it is not as widely available in the rest fsl randomise options trading the world. Moreover, in North America, the Internet is most widely used at corporate locations, where interacting with FSLs on a timely basis is often discouraged.
In addition to the problem of accessibility, both types of interfaces do not readily allow for modifications to be made in almost real-time, for example modifications made for a daily match. SUMMARY In accordance with a broad aspect of the present invention, there is provided a mufti-modal interface for Facilitating access to an interactive sports contest using a telephony-based device, comprising: In one embodiment, the contestant can query the databases using voice-only commands.
In one embodiment, the contestant can make transactions using voice-only commands. In one embodiment, the interactive voice recognition system comprises a voice recognition engine and a text-to-speech engine.
In one embodiment, the mufti-modal interface further comprises a billing system. In one embodiment, the mufti-modal interface facilitates access to the interactive sports contest using a location-based system.
In accordance with another broad aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for facilitating access for contestants to an interactive sports contest, which method comprises the steps of: In one embodiment, the requested information is sent by voice. In one embodiment, the requested information is sent by voice message. In accordance with another broad aspect of the present invention, there is provided a system for sending a notification of data or events to a contestant in an interactive sports contest through a telephony-based device, comprising: In one embodiment, the contestants can configure which data and events will trigger sending the notification.
In one embodiment, the notification is sent daily. In one embodiment, the notification is sent by voice. In one embodiment, the notification is sent by voice message. In one embodiment, the notification is sent by a messaging interface. In one embodiment, the notification is sent through a web interface. In one embodiment, the notification is sent in almost real time. The interface can allow contestants to access fsl randomise options trading particular FSL using a variety of different telephony-based devices.
The interface can be multi-modal because several different formats of communication can be used together to facilitate and encourage use. Once contestants have registered with a FSL through the interface, they can select a virtual team of players of interest and manage their virtual teams at any time on a daily basis due to the ubiquitous nature of telephony-based devices.
The interface can be connected through a connector 8 to a FSL provider 9. FSL provider 9 or mufti-modal interface 1 can include a contestant database In this dianram, a contestant 11Si11g a sinf;le telephony-based device 13 is shown interacting with the interface. However, it is to be understood that a plurality of telephony-based devices can interact with the interface at the same time.
In mufti-modal interface 1, different formats of communication can be used together to facilitate and encourage the use of a FSL as well as to increase its membership. To communicate with a FSL through mufti-modal interface 1, fsl randomise options trading contestant can use telephony-based device 13, which can take various forms, and can include, for example, which are not meant to be limiting, devices such as landline telephones, cellular phones, smart phones, personal data assistants PDAspersonal computers, Voice-over-IP devices, wireless application protocol-based wap devices, etc.
Of course, one skilled in the art will understand that many different communication devices are available and continue to evolve rapidly, and although the details of different communication devices may vary greatly, each can be used to connect with FSL provider 9 using mufti-modal interface 1. This type of interaction can be particularly advantageous in FSLs where a player of interest can only be part of one contestant's virtual team, and fsl randomise options trading or adding players of interest between virtual teams or on fantasy team databases is performed throughout the season.
The usc; fsl randomise options trading various telephony-based devices to connect with FSL provider 9 through multi-modal interface 1 can be accomplished through the presence of a number of communication device links. As is apparent, the types of links that can be used will vary with the type of communication device used with the interface. In one embodiment, as shown in FIG.
A voice-based device link 19 can be used for voice access to the interface, which can support both landline and cellular access as well as Voice-over-IP based devices, and the like, and can be accessed through a connector Connectors 16, 18, 20 and 22 can take various forms, which can include, but are not limited to, a telephone line, or other physical or non-physical components.
Non-physical components can be used to enable the use of veireless technologies. Of course, additional links and connectors can be added to facilitate communication with other types of communication devices. These components can include, but are not limited to, an interactive voice response IVR system, which can include various engines such as a text-to-speech IO TTS engine, a messaging engine, a browsing engine, as well as an engine for OTA-based delivery.
In one embodiment, the various different engines can be interfaced through the use of an interaction protocol such as, for example, which is not meant to be limiting, VoiceXML. VoiceXML can be of particular usefulness in voice-based device link In the case of voice-based device link 19, an IVR system, which can function in combination with central processing unit 3, can convert a voice excerpt into a written, text segment of a specific human language, such as English.
As is apparent, any fsl randomise options trading language could be used by an IVR system. This conversion can be particularly useful for communicating with a FSL provider, which may only be able to respond to text commands. In this case, any voice commands received from a contestant through voice-based device link 19 in mufti-modal interface 1 would first be converted to text, and then sent fsl randomise options trading the FSL provider.
To provide contestants with a voice-based response, a TTS engine can be used to convert any text communication received from the FSL provider to voice, which can then be relayed to the contestant. It should be noted that, although dialogs through mufti-modal interface 1 can be structured to allow for free form input, directed dialogs can be used when required, for example if a contestant has a heavy accent or a simpler system is desired.
The various fsl randomise options trading links provided in mufti-modal interface 1 can function to permit communication between a contestant's telephony-based device and central processing unit 3 of the interface. These communication links can be connected to the central processing unit through connectors 23, 24, 25 and Central processing unit 3 in mufti-modal interface 1 can function to receive data from and to transmit data fsl randomise options trading contestants regarding their selected virtual team, thereby permitting contestants to select and manage their virtual teams from their telephony-based device.
The communication links can serve to translate any information incoming from a telephony-based device through connectors 16, 18, 20 or 22 into a form easily understood by central processing unit 3.
They also serve to translate any information sent by central processing unit 3 into a form recognized by the particular telephony-based device used by a contestant. To facilitate, enrich and encourage the use of mufti-modal interface 1, the central processing Llnlt can also have the ability to recognize the requirements and limitations of the telephony-based device used by the contestants. This can allow for a more personalized and richer interaction with mufti-modal interface 1, whereby any information sent by the interface can be customized to better suit the telephony-based device used by the contestant.
For example, which is not meant to be limiting, if a contestant is using a telephony-based device with messaging or Internet-browsing capabilities, certain information can be sent fsl randomise options trading text form as well as in voice form.
IO The central processing unit can have access to team roster database 5 and players of fsl randomise options trading database 7. The location of team roster database 5 and players of interest database 7 can vary. In another embodiment not shownthese databases can be located within FSL provider 9. Access to team roster database 5 and players of interest database 7 by the central processing unit can be established in a plurality of different ways, which can include, but are not limited to, accessing these databases through various connectors.
One of skill in the art will understand that the nature of these connectors will vary depending on the location of the databases. In one embodiment as illustrated in FIG.
Again, connectors 27, 29, and 31 can be various physical or non--physical technologies or programming. Team roster database 5 can contain information about contestants and their selected virtual teams of players of interest. Players fsl randomise options trading interest database 7 can contain data relating to players of interest available for selection in the FSL and fsl randomise options trading information regarding each player. The information contained within team roster database 5 and players of interest database 7 can include, but is not limited to, miscellaneous data, statistics, rankings, etc.
The data contained within team roster database 5 and players of interest database 7 can be updated through the use of a statistics provider 33 at various intervals, which can include, but are not limited to, hourly, daily, weekly, etc. Statistics provider 33 can take various forms, and can include, but is not limited to; individuals, unassociated inputers, the FSL provider, a sports organization that collects statistics on players of interest and teams, etc.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. Through connector 35, central processing unit 3 can receive statistics on sports teams of interest and players of interest, and thereby can update team roster database 5 and players of interest database 7 through connectors 27 and 29, respectively. In another embodiment not shownstatistics provider 33 can be directly connected to team roster-database 5 and fsl randomise options trading of interest database 7. A contestant can thus, using a telephony-based device, connect to mufti-modal interface 1 in order to access a FSL and manage their virtual teams.
Most FSLs require each contestant to first register in order to participate. Registration can be performed through mufti-modal interface 1, in one embodiment, by the contestants dialing a known telephone number that will connect them with the interface. Of course, contestants can connect fsl randomise options trading the interface in a plurality of different ways, which can include ways in which dialing a specific phone number is not required.
In one embodiment, a contestant may register using a logic identifier and password, which are unique to the contestant. The logic identifier and password may be entered in mufti-modal interface 1 through a communication link using an IVR system, or entered using DTMF fsl randomise options trading.
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