Software binary fessionalextreme
A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file. Binary files are usually thought of as being a sequence of byteswhich means the binary digits bits are grouped in eights. Binary files typically contain bytes that are intended to be interpreted as something other than text characters. Compiled computer programs are typical examples; indeed, compiled applications are sometimes referred to, particularly by programmers, as binaries. But binary files can also mean that they contain images, sounds, compressed versions of other files, etc.
Some binary files contain headersblocks of metadata used by a computer program to interpret the data in the file. The header often contains a signature or magic number which can identify the software binary fessionalextreme. For example, a GIF file can contain multiple images, and headers are used to identify software binary fessionalextreme describe each block of image data. If a software binary fessionalextreme file does software binary fessionalextreme contain any headers, it may be called a flat binary file.
To send binary files through certain systems such as email that do not software binary fessionalextreme all data values, they are often translated into a plain text representation using, for example, Base The increased size software binary fessionalextreme be countered by lower-level link compression, as the resulting text data will have about as much less entropy as it has increased size, so the actual data transferred in this scenario would likely be very close to the size of the original binary data.
See Binary-to-text encoding software binary fessionalextreme more on this subject. A hex editor or viewer may be used to view file data as a sequence of hexadecimal or decimal, binary or ASCII character values for corresponding bytes of a binary file.
If a binary file is opened in a text editoreach group of eight bits will typically be translated as a single character, and the user will see a probably unintelligible display of textual characters. If the file is opened in some other application, that application will have its own use for each byte: Other type of viewers called 'word extractors' simply replace the unprintable characters with spaces revealing only the human-readable text. This type of view is useful for quick inspection of a binary file in order to find passwords in games, find hidden text in non-text files and recover corrupted documents.
If the file is itself treated as an executable and run, then the operating system will attempt to interpret the file as a series of instructions in its machine software binary fessionalextreme.
Standards are very important to binary files. For example, a binary file interpreted by the ASCII character set will result in text being displayed. A custom application can interpret the file differently: Binary itself is meaningless, until such time as an executed algorithm defines what should be done with each bit, byte, word or block. Thus, just examining the binary and attempting to match it against known formats can lead to the wrong conclusion as to what it actually represents.
This software binary fessionalextreme can be used in steganographywhere an algorithm interprets a binary data file differently to reveal software binary fessionalextreme content. Without the algorithm, it is impossible to tell that software binary fessionalextreme content exists. Two files that are binary compatible will have the same sequence of zeros and ones in the data portion of the file.
The file header, however, may be different. The term is used most commonly to state that data files produced by one application are exactly the same as data files produced by another application.
For example, some software companies produce applications for Windows and the Macintosh that are binary compatible, which means that a file produced in a Windows environment is interchangeable with a file produced on a Macintosh. This avoids software binary fessionalextreme of the conversion problems caused by importing and exporting data.
One possible binary compatibility issue between different computers is the endianness of the computer. Some computers store the bytes in a file in a different order. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For double stars, see Binary star. For the Software binary fessionalextreme image format, see Disk image.
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In computer storagefragmentation is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The exact consequences of fragmentation software binary fessionalextreme on the specific system of storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in that case the term also refers software binary fessionalextreme the wasted space itself. For other systems e.
There are three different but related forms of fragmentation: Fragmentation is often accepted in return for improvements in speed or simplicity. Analogous phenomena occur for other resources such as processors; see below.
When software binary fessionalextreme computer program requests blocks of memory from the computer system, the blocks are allocated in chunks. When the computer program is finished with a chunk, it can free the chunk back to the system, making it available to later be allocated again to another or the same program.
The size and the amount of time a chunk is held by a program varies. During its lifespan, a computer program can request and free many chunks of memory. When a program is started, the free memory areas are long and contiguous. Over time and with use, the long contiguous regions become fragmented into smaller and smaller contiguous areas.
Eventually, it may become impossible for the program to obtain large contiguous chunks of memory. Due to the rules governing memory allocationmore computer memory is sometimes allocated than is needed. For example, memory can only be provided to programs in chunks divisible by 4, 8 or 16, and as a result if a program requests perhaps 23 bytes, it will software binary fessionalextreme get a chunk of 32 bytes.
When this happens, the excess memory goes to waste. In this scenario, the unusable memory is contained within an allocated region. This arrangement, termed software binary fessionalextreme partitions, suffers from inefficient memory software binary fessionalextreme - any process, no matter how small, occupies an entire partition. This waste is called internal fragmentation. Unlike other types of fragmentation, internal fragmentation is difficult to reclaim; usually the best way to remove it is with a design change.
For example, in dynamic memory allocationmemory pools drastically cut internal fragmentation by spreading the space overhead over a larger number of objects. External fragmentation arises when free memory is separated into small blocks and is interspersed by allocated memory. Software binary fessionalextreme is a weakness of certain storage allocation algorithms, when they fail to order memory used by programs efficiently. The result is that, although free storage is available, it is effectively unusable because it is divided into pieces that are too small individually to satisfy the demands of the application.
The term "external" refers to the fact that the unusable storage is outside the allocated regions. For example, consider a situation wherein a program allocates 3 continuous blocks of memory and then software binary fessionalextreme the middle block. The memory allocator can use this free block of memory for future allocations.
However, it software binary fessionalextreme use this block if the memory software binary fessionalextreme be allocated is larger in size than this free block.
External fragmentation also occurs in file systems as many files of different sizes are created, change size, and are deleted. The effect is even worse if a file which is divided into many small pieces is deleted, because this leaves similarly small software binary fessionalextreme of free spaces.
Data fragmentation occurs when a collection of data in memory is broken up into many pieces that are not close together. It is typically the result of attempting to insert a large object into storage that has already suffered external fragmentation. For software binary fessionalextreme, files in a file system are usually managed in units called blocks or clusters.
When a file system is created, there is free space to store file blocks together contiguously. This allows for rapid sequential file reads and writes. However, as files are added, removed, and changed in size, the free space becomes externally fragmented, leaving only small holes in which to place new data. When a new file is written, or when an existing file is extended, the operating system puts the new data in new non-contiguous data blocks to fit into the available holes.
This is called file system fragmentation. When writing a new file of a known size, if there are any empty holes that are larger than that file, the operating system can avoid data fragmentation by putting the file into any one of those holes.
There are a variety of algorithms for selecting which of those potential holes to put the file; each of them is a heuristic approximate solution to the bin packing problem. The "best fit" algorithm chooses the smallest hole that is big enough. The "worst fit" algorithm chooses the largest hole. The " first-fit algorithm " chooses the first hole that is big enough. The "next fit" algorithm keeps track of where each file was written. The "next fit" algorithm is faster than "first fit", which is in turn faster than "best fit", which is the same speed as "worst fit".
Just as compaction can eliminate external fragmentation, data fragmentation can be eliminated by rearranging data storage so that related pieces are close together. For example, the primary job of a defragmentation tool is to rearrange blocks on disk so that the blocks of software binary fessionalextreme file are contiguous. Software binary fessionalextreme defragmenting utilities also attempt to reduce or eliminate free space fragmentation. Some moving garbage collectors will also move related objects close together this is called compacting to improve cache performance.
There are 4 kinds of systems that never experience data fragmentation—they always store every file contiguously. All 4 kinds have significant disadvantages compared to systems that allow at least some temporary data fragmentation:. Software binary fessionalextreme to external fragmentation, overhead and internal fragmentation account for little loss in terms of wasted memory and reduced performance.
It is defined as:. External fragmentation tends to be less of a problem in file systems than in primary memory RAM storage systems, because programs usually require their RAM storage requests to be fulfilled with contiguous blocks, but file systems typically are designed to be able use any collection of available blocks fragments to assemble a file which logically appears contiguous.
Therefore, if a highly fragmented file or many small files are deleted from a full volume and then a new file with size equal to the newly freed space is created, the new file will software binary fessionalextreme reuse the same fragments that were freed by the deletion.
If what was deleted was one file, the new file and will be just as fragmented as that old file was, but in any case there will be no barrier to using all the highly fragmented free space to create the new file. In RAM, on the other hand, the storage systems used often cannot assemble a large block to meet a request from small noncontiguous free blocks, and so the request cannot software binary fessionalextreme fulfilled and the program cannot proceed to do whatever it needed that memory for unless it can reissue the request as a number of smaller separate requests.
The most severe problem caused by fragmentation is causing a process or system to fail, due to premature resource exhaustion: Fragmentation causes this to occur even if there is enough of the resource, but not a contiguous amount. For example, if software binary fessionalextreme computer has 4 GiB of memory and 2 GiB software binary fessionalextreme free, but the memory is fragmented in an alternating sequence of 1 MiB software binary fessionalextreme, 1 MiB free, then a request for 1 contiguous GiB of memory cannot be satisfied even though 2 GiB total are free.
In order to avoid this, the allocator may, instead of failing, trigger a defragmentation or memory compaction cycle or other resource reclamation, such as a major garbage collection cycle, in the hope software binary fessionalextreme it will then be able to satisfy the request. This allows the process to proceed, but can severely impact software binary fessionalextreme. Fragmentation causes performance degradation for a number of reasons. Most basically, fragmentation increases the work required to allocate and access a resource.
For example, on a hard drive or tape drive, sequential data reads are very fast, but seeking to a different address is slow, so reading or writing a fragmented file requires numerous seeks and is thus much slower, in addition to causes greater wear on the device. Further, if a resource is not fragmented, allocation requests can simply be satisfied by returning a single block from the start of the free area.
However it is fragmented, the request requires either searching for a large enough free block, which may take a long time, or fulfilling the request by several smaller blocks if this is possiblewhich results in this allocation being fragmented, and requiring additional overhead to manage the several pieces. A subtler problem is that fragmentation may prematurely exhaust a cache, causing thrashingdue to caches holding blocks, not individual data. If the working set is unfragmented, then it will fit onto exactly 64 pages the page working set will be 64 pagesand all memory lookups can be served from cache.
However, if the working set is fragmented, then software binary fessionalextreme will not fit into 64 pages, and execution will slow due to thrashing: Thus cache sizing in system design must include margin to account for fragmentation.
Memory fragmentation is one of the most severe problems faced by system managers. Eventually, memory fragmentation may lead to complete loss of application-usable free memory. Memory fragmentation is a kernel programming level problem. However, while it may not be possible software binary fessionalextreme a system to continue running software binary fessionalextreme programs in the case of excessive memory fragmentation, a well-designed system should be software binary fessionalextreme to recover from the critical fragmentation condition by moving in memory some memory blocks used by the system itself in order to enable consolidation of free memory into fewer, larger blocks, or, in the worst case, by terminating some programs to free their memory and then defragmenting the resulting sum total of free memory.
This will at least avoid a true crash in the sense of system failure and allow the system to continue running some programs, save program data, etc. It is also important software binary fessionalextreme note that fragmentation is a phenomenon of system software design; different software will be susceptible to fragmentation to different degrees, and it is possible to design a system that will never software binary fessionalextreme forced to shut down or kill processes as a software binary fessionalextreme of memory fragmentation.
While fragmentation is best known as a problem in memory allocation, analogous phenomena occur for software binary fessionalextreme resourcesnotably processors. More fundamentally, time-sharing itself causes external fragmentation of processes due to running them in fragmented time slices, rather than in a single unbroken run.
The resulting cost of process switching and increased cache pressure from multiple processes using the same caches can result in degraded performance. In concurrent systemsparticularly distributed systemswhen a group of processes must interact in order to progress, if the processes are scheduled at separate times or on separate machines fragmented across time or machinesthe time spent waiting for each other or in communicating with each other can severely degrade performance.
Instead, performant systems require coscheduling of the group. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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